Tag Archive 'Advertisement'

Oct 04 2012

Hello, I’m a Mac

Published by under The Shopping Blog

And if you recognized that line, you’re already familiar with how successful Mac’s marketing campaign really is. To start us out, here’s an example from 1984, and a more contemporary edition.

Yikes. Let’s see how far we’ve come.

Ah, that’s more like it.

 

The Mac line of computers (the model I’ll be focussing on is the MacBook Pro), are some of the most recognizable, and if you believe the reviews, innovative personal computers on the market. They’re fun, they’re sleek, they’re expensive as heck, and most users would argue, they’re worth that price. How much are they? Well, that depends on where you’re shopping.

For our purposes, let’s look at the Apple Macbook Pro, Retina display 15 inch. Though a 15 inch MacBook Pro without Retina would set you back merely 1799 dollars, a fully decked out MacBook Pro with Retina Display will run you a cool 2,199. Plus upgrades. What does Retina actually do? I’m not sure, but the website indicates that it’s the “world’s highest” resolution for a notebook display. Awesome.

You can procure these fine products at a number of locations, whether it’s from the Apple Store in New York City, infamously called the ‘Cube,’ or whether it’s online at apple.com. Even ‘resellers’ like Best Buy, Radioshack, and Target offer these products. The price will differ from place to place, depending on a number of features and factors, such as screen size, hard drive or memory capacity, and countless other nuances of geekery. See what I mean? I don’t even know what half this stuff is referring to, and I OWN a MacBook (granted, an older model MacBook that’s not even in production anymore, so not exactly a top of the line Pro with Retina). It’s important to note that price may vary from vendor to vendor even for the same exact product, and this can be for a number of reasons, such as shipping costs. demand, location, and a variety of other causes.

It’s important to realize that Mac has had its share of controversy. Despite being such a powerhouse–and maybe because of it–the company has come under a lot of scrutiny since its foundation in 1976 by the esteemed, late Steve Jobs. Some big issues that haunt the company are environmental concerns and labour issues.

In regards to the environmental, Apple has a problematic track record when it comes to some of its non-recyclable parts and toxic materials used in the production of its computers. However, over the years, the company has committed to improving its business practices and the effects production have on the environment, and has taken steps to phase out some of the more troubling materials.

Though Apple has taken steps to mitigate environmental concerns, it still is under heavy criticism for its labour practices. Workers are exposed to brutal conditions, long hours, are forced to live in the factories and pay rent/food money to apple, have committed suicide, are exposed to toxic chemicals, and in some instances, are forced to work as children or against their will. Apple has said that it is committed to improving working conditions, but whether or not they will be entirely dedicated to the task remains to be seen.

Despite the obstacles the company has faced, I choose to write about this product for a number of reasons. Firstly, I believe the product is a quality one, worth the money, and one that provides the services it sets out to do–and with style, to boot. The machine is sleek, efficient, doesn’t get viruses, functions well, looks good, and makes me happy. That last thought is worth studying a little more closely–Apple has used extremely successful marketing techniques to pitch its products to its audience–especially younger members who are eager to stay on top of current technological trends and be in touch with the latest, hippest products. By using flashy advertisements, offering student discounts, working with university bookstores to provide software, and marketing their products with deliberate intent, Apple is able to convince its purchasers that these products are absolutely inherently necessary to their success and happiness. And the product delivers, for the most part–every company has its issues and glitches, and Apple is no different. For the most part, though, it’s a solid product. I have noticed a few personal gaps in their customer service, but maybe that’s just me. Others might be interested in studying the company and it’s practices, but probably, you’re already familiar with the products and company–we all feel like we’re on a first name basis with Steve Jobs and how many of us have an iPod or iPhone? We may complain about the company, but the iBrand has become a household name, much as a BandAid or Q-Tip. Even when friends of mine have Zunes (etc), they’re colloquially referred to as iPods, not ‘mp3 players.’ Apple has truly ingrained itself in the public’s mind–as the old slogan used to run, iThink, therefore iMac.

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Oct 04 2012

Hello, I’m a Mac

Published by under The Shopping Blog

And if you recognized that line, you’re already familiar with how successful Mac’s marketing campaign really is. To start us out, here’s an example from 1984, and a more contemporary edition.

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8[/youtube]

Yikes. Let’s see how far we’ve come.

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8UxyJewd3Q&feature=related[/youtube]

Ah, that’s more like it.

 

The Mac line of computers (the model I’ll be focussing on is the MacBook Pro), are some of the most recognizable, and if you believe the reviews, innovative personal computers on the market. They’re fun, they’re sleek, they’re expensive as heck, and most users would argue, they’re worth that price. How much are they? Well, that depends on where you’re shopping.

For our purposes, let’s look at the Apple Macbook Pro, Retina display 15 inch. Though a 15 inch MacBook Pro without Retina would set you back merely 1799 dollars, a fully decked out MacBook Pro with Retina Display will run you a cool 2,199. Plus upgrades. What does Retina actually do? I’m not sure, but the website indicates that it’s the “world’s highest” resolution for a notebook display. Awesome.

You can procure these fine products at a number of locations, whether it’s from the Apple Store in New York City, infamously called the ‘Cube,’ or whether it’s online at apple.com. Even ‘resellers’ like Best Buy, Radioshack, and Target offer these products. The price will differ from place to place, depending on a number of features and factors, such as screen size, hard drive or memory capacity, and countless other nuances of geekery. See what I mean? I don’t even know what half this stuff is referring to, and I OWN a MacBook (granted, an older model MacBook that’s not even in production anymore, so not exactly a top of the line Pro with Retina). It’s important to note that price may vary from vendor to vendor even for the same exact product, and this can be for a number of reasons, such as shipping costs. demand, location, and a variety of other causes.

It’s important to realize that Mac has had its share of controversy. Despite being such a powerhouse–and maybe because of it–the company has come under a lot of scrutiny since its foundation in 1976 by the esteemed, late Steve Jobs. Some big issues that haunt the company are environmental concerns and labour issues.

In regards to the environmental, Apple has a problematic track record when it comes to some of its non-recyclable parts and toxic materials used in the production of its computers. However, over the years, the company has committed to improving its business practices and the effects production have on the environment, and has taken steps to phase out some of the more troubling materials.

Though Apple has taken steps to mitigate environmental concerns, it still is under heavy criticism for its labour practices. Workers are exposed to brutal conditions, long hours, are forced to live in the factories and pay rent/food money to apple, have committed suicide, are exposed to toxic chemicals, and in some instances, are forced to work as children or against their will. Apple has said that it is committed to improving working conditions, but whether or not they will be entirely dedicated to the task remains to be seen.

Despite the obstacles the company has faced, I choose to write about this product for a number of reasons. Firstly, I believe the product is a quality one, worth the money, and one that provides the services it sets out to do–and with style, to boot. The machine is sleek, efficient, doesn’t get viruses, functions well, looks good, and makes me happy. That last thought is worth studying a little more closely–Apple has used extremely successful marketing techniques to pitch its products to its audience–especially younger members who are eager to stay on top of current technological trends and be in touch with the latest, hippest products. By using flashy advertisements, offering student discounts, working with university bookstores to provide software, and marketing their products with deliberate intent, Apple is able to convince its purchasers that these products are absolutely inherently necessary to their success and happiness. And the product delivers, for the most part–every company has its issues and glitches, and Apple is no different. For the most part, though, it’s a solid product. I have noticed a few personal gaps in their customer service, but maybe that’s just me. Others might be interested in studying the company and it’s practices, but probably, you’re already familiar with the products and company–we all feel like we’re on a first name basis with Steve Jobs and how many of us have an iPod or iPhone? We may complain about the company, but the iBrand has become a household name, much as a BandAid or Q-Tip. Even when friends of mine have Zunes (etc), they’re colloquially referred to as iPods, not ‘mp3 players.’ Apple has truly ingrained itself in the public’s mind–as the old slogan used to run, iThink, therefore iMac.

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Apr 05 2010

Born To Buy: Children and Consumerism

By Peter H. Smeallie IV

In the book Born To Buy, author Julia Schor discusses the various insidious, opportunistic ways in which large, powerful advertising companies/firms target and market to young children, and how they try to indoctrinate them into a lifetime of mass, oftentimes unhealthy, consumerism.

She starts out her first chapter by talking about how children/kids are “conduits” (or links) between advertisers and parents, and how children are usually targeted first as the adoptive users of technology (for the reasons that they learn ideas fast, are more passionate about consumer goods/desires, and are brand-loyal). She discusses gender commercialization and how advertisers market violent video games to boys and sexual/bodacious, “glamorous” toys to girls, how the culture of consumerism in America has put a weak emphasis on teaching children to thrive socially, spiritually, and intellectually in the world (and, instead, has led to such troubling issues as obesity, ADD & ADHD, electronic addictions, drug abuse, bullying, and alienation/low self-esteem), and how advertisers often exploit the fears and pressures impressed upon young children. Schor talks about the illusion that adults have of viewing childhood as “innocent and sacred” (while, ironically, discussing the “disappearance of childhood”), the history of significant consumption in America (dating back to the 1870s), and the old gate keeper model of advertising, where in which the marketing of ads filter through parents before reaching children.

In her second and third chapter, she writes about several shocking advertising truths: that kids recognize logos by 18 months, ask for products by their brand names before their 2nd birthday, believe commercials have values by age 3, and ask for the latest fashions by age 6 or 7. She discusses the issue of tweening and/or age compression, and how advertisers continually market goods to children at younger and younger ages, how children often exert more control over their parents (concerning financial purchases and such) than the other way around, how the latter has earned American children the title of “The Influence Market” by advertisers, and how parents often dole out “guilt money” to children in exchange for not being able to spend enough time with them.  She also talks about the concept of Pester Power, the persistent, nagging & annoying method young children use to manipulate their parents into buying them goods, regular everyday goods such as shampoo bottles, toothbrushes, and vitamins that are sold to children as trans toys, the idea of anti-adultism, where in which marketers/firms such as Nickelodeon and Disney convince young children that adults are the boring, lifeless, “enemy” (and “products, rather than parents, are on their side”), and lastly, the three basic human “needs” that advertisers use to entice kids into asking their parents for various goods: the need to succeed, love, and sensory stimulation. In addition, Schor also talks about the slang terms used in the world of marketing and advertising: targets (whom ads are directed to), collateral (printed material), and intercepts (impromptu interviews with consumers).

In chapter 4, Schor talks about the video game POX, and how it became very popular through the advertising method of “viral infection.” She talks about how marketers who held brainstorming efforts with “alpha pups/kids” (or those who were considered “cool” among their peers/students) paid the children $30 each and encouraged them to “infect” other children with POX (tell them to buy the game). She talks about how Chicago became a hotbed for POX sales, since it is considered a bad-weathered city where young children tend to stay inside and play toys a lot more than elsewhere (and a city where in which toy stores are mostly located nearby homes), the “buzz” method that advertisers use to sell their goods (which, according to Schor, requires the five techniques of authenticity, advocacy, experiential messaging, fusion of strategies, and visibility/virality through overt and covert actions), the “under-the-radar” method that advertisers use (which entails product placements such as that of Reese’s found in the movie E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial, and that of AOL found in the movie You’ve Got Mail), “real life product placement,” and references to goods used in such mediums as deejay songs.

In chapter 5, Schor talks about the arrival of Channel One advertising in schools in 1989 (and, subsequently, how advertisement in schools expanded greatly during the late 1990s), the corporation infiltration of “incentive programs,” or sponsors (such as General Mills Box Tops and Pizza Hut)  who’d agree to give students discounts or free products if they stopped at certain stores or collected a necessary number of coupons, into schools, and “pouring rights,” where in which school districts would sign exclusive contracts with soft drink companies and let them advertise in their schools (an issue which apparently drew scrutiny from various school system officials). Schor also mentions Sponsored Educational Materials (SEMs), former Youth Marketing International employee Roberta Nusim who worked for an advertising firm and referenced such latter SEMs as Campbell Soup, Gushers Wonders of the World, and Revlon being used in schools, and the issue of companies, such as PBS and Scholastic, having “wholesome haloreputations.

In chapter 6 Schor discusses how marketers actually survey children and research what types of goods/merchandise they desire. She starts off the chapter by talking about advertiser Mary Prescott, a “naturalistic,” ethnographic data-gatherer who interviewed 5-year old Caitlin in her house (with her mother’s consent) and observed the ways in which she acted. She then further discusses how the latter is an example of oftentimes exploitive, sneaky methods that marketers use to sell their goods and make money. She talks about how companies utilize such research methods as filming kids in their daily lives (playing with dolls/games, eating breakfast, and brushing their teeth, etc.), the “traditional” use of telephone, online, and written surveys, focus groups, and mall questionnaires, Neuromarketing (or ZMET), a method used by the BrightHouse Institute For Thought in Atlanta, G.A. where in which, as they are given MRIs, participants’ brain images are documented in accordance to pictures of various goods they’re shown, and school surveys in their work. Schor discusses how advertisers use “natural” (such as exclusive, in-house interviews with children, neuromarketing, etc.) vs. traditional methods of research since the former is more efficient, and how often times child surveys that marketers perform are bereft of any good ethics (citing an example of schools who require parents to sign off that children are not allowed to take part in market surveys, and how the absence of a signature would indicate implied consent). Schor also discusses drug use research done on “tweens,” and how the message of “just say no” by adults has not only been misconstrued to mean “don’t grow up,” but has also distracted children away from the more important message that drugs don’t help you form your “real self.”

In chapter 7, Schor discusses the issues of malnutrition, violence in the media, and drugs affecting children. She talks about processed foods being at the center of child consumerism culture, how marketers are consistently selling “sugary food, fatty food, fast food, and solid, liquid candy” to kids, and the methods of dual-messaging (appealing to both parents and children) and kid empowerment /anti-adultism that marketers use to maintain a loyal, buying consumer force. Another issue that Schor discusses in this chapter is how “innocuous” products such as sugar and caffeine are being used by children in a way that resembles adult drug use (the necessity to stay awake, remain motivated, etc.), and how companies often advertise goods like alcohol and tobacco to “underage” events such as rock concerts and baseball games.

In chapter 8, Schor talks about the results of two parallel surveys she conducted in the Boston area in 2001/2002 and 2003. Her Survey On Children, Media, and Consumer Culture, which was taken by approximately 300 children between the ages of 10 and 13 (between those ages, she discovered, kids tend to develop their own individual consumerism ideas/patterns), was first done in the suburban area of Droxley in the fall of 2001/winter of 2002. The second was done in a mostly black and Latino-populated urban region of Boston in the spring of 2003. Overall, her results seemed to yield that, despite the differences between charts, materialism generally tended to be associated with low self-esteem, depression, bad parental relations, obesity, drug use/drinking, and antisocial behavior.

In class on Tuesday, the first, and most important, comment that someone made was that, while in the past the “Joneses” were people’s next-door neighbors, nowadays, the “Joneses” are TV characters, and that’s what greatly influences children’s consumerism habits. There is a prevailing message in the media that if kids don’t have certain goods, they won’t be happy or cool, and, as not only one student but also the book suggested, that has undoubtedly led to an increase in depression, ADD & ADHD, food sensitivity, obesity, and other afflictions of the sort in children. One of the main discussions we had was why certain parents buy their children toys in a store when the child throws a loud, disruptive temper tantrum in that store: do they do so just to get out of the place and not feel embarrassed? Do they feel like a bad parent if they don’t? And why do they reward bad behavior? Are they in control of their kids or vice versa? Someone also mentioned that another effect of advertisers on children nowadays (or, children who are now young adults) is the “entitlement” syndrome, where in which people who’ve been pampered throughout their childhood are shocked that they might not have a hot car, a snazzy apartment, etc. after college (and rely heavily on their parents), and that a sense of reward-based versus merit-based work has developed in America in the past few decades. We discussed the issue of parents being permissive enablers, viewing children as extensions of themselves (and thus, possibly for that reason, indulging their kids with all the goods, toys, etc. they want), the issue of age compression, and how sexualized Barbie dolls sold to young girls are, and the difference between unstructured and over-scheduled American children. On Thursday, we watched various clips, including a trailer for Mean Girls, which helped initiate a discussion on the problem of the “alpha girl” in schools, a Tonka toys commercial, which concerned gender-specific toys, and “Desperate Housewives” snippets where in which children were in more control of their parents then vice versa. On the matter of gender specification, we talked about how children not only are given these messages by marketers, but learn a great deal from their peers. However, it’s not terribly odd if a three year old boy dresses up in girl clothes (or plays with dolls). The overall question of the book and our discussions still remains: should advertisers market goods to people who don’t have the faculties of mind to understand that which they’re being sold? Or is that unethical?


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Mar 22 2010

The Conquest of Cool: The 1960s Changed It All!

By Peter H. Smeallie IV

In The Conquest of Cool, writer Tom Frank discusses the many dramatic changes that occurred between the 1950s and 1960s, and how those changes not only affected the economic and business/marking side of America, but also the mass consumption-driven cultural side of it too.

In the first few chapters, Frank talks about the various overall ideologies that were prevalent in the pre-1960s era, and then about how the nation afterwards, as he puts it on page 1 of his book, became “the birthplace of our own culture, the homeland of hip, an era of which the tastes and discoveries and passions, however obscure their origins, have somehow determined the world in which we are condemned to live.” He talks about the stiff, “grey-flannel shirt” worker mentality of the 1950s (coupled with the rational, scientific, “assembly line” style corporate management which promoted that type of mentality), and how when the New Left/Counterculture movement took place in the decade to follow, advertisers on Madison Avenue reapproached their way of marketing and shifted their focus to the new, “hip” young group of American consumers.  Using references to Forrest Gump, The Graduate, bands such as The Doors, Iron Butterfly, The Beatles, and musician Bob Dylan, and political/academic figures of the time such as Theodore Roszak, Newt Gingrich (whom Frank writes as being “anti-sixties” and against the “celebration of difference, transgression, and carnivalesque [nature]” of that time period), and Norman Mailer, Frank further discusses Theory X and Theory Y, the two modes of business/industry that fit America during the 1950s and 1960s—Theory X being the “boring,” “monolithic,” and unchanging conservative mode of business (workers being “‘coerced,’ supervised, and ‘directed’ to a hierarchy of power”), and Theory Y being the more motivation-driven, individualistic, “sophisticated” mode of business that rewards the worker for their labor instead of punishing them for their mistakes. Frank talks about Rosser Reeves, the man who directed Eisenhower’s 1952 presidential campaign commercial, as well as David Olgivy, the two marketers of the 1950s and 1960s era who were aligned with the rigid, bureaucratic, and scientific Theory X state of mind, and then follows by mentioning J. Walter Thompson and the Doyle Dane Bernbach agency (DDB), two major advertisement firms that catered to the new, counterculture movement of America and changed the face of marketing.

In chapter 3, Frank starts out by talking about how the values of the 1960s towards work and industry became more about glorifying free-spiritedness, breaking rules, and “[squashing] conventionality like a ripe fruit” than succumbing to the orders and demands of corporate bosses. He then continues by talking about the rise of DDB, its focus on loosening the strict, corporate structure of advertisement and changing it to one based more on artsy and creative marketing, how Bernbach invented “anti-advertising” and the strategy of selling goods through eliciting “public mistrust,” and the company’s substantial campaign to sell cars such as Volkswagen. Frank references a quote by Bernbach on page 57 of his book, “Logic and overanalysis can immobilize and sterilize an idea… It’s like love—the more you analyze it the faster it disappears,” and that is exactly the way Frank talks about how new advertisers such as DDB operated. They advocated disregarding rules, being funny in their ads, and convincing the audience that their advertisements were honest. Frank then mentions several examples of those types of advertisements, including the Burlington Mid-Length Socks commercial where the man hops ands flails around his room, testing the tightness (or elasticity) of his socks, the Alka Seltzer commercial where an actor is shown eating pasta and exclaiming “Mama Mia!” through a series of bloopers, and a Volkswagen advertisement where DDB urges buyers against purchasing “old” types of VWs because of their association with Hitler and the Nazis.

In the next few chapters, Frank further discusses the “Creative Revolution” of companies such as DDB, J. Walter Thompson, Wells, Rich, Green, and Foote, Cone, & Belding, as well as Papert, Koenig, and Lois (PKL), an agency whose loud, outspoken, representative, George Lewis, outrageously, outlandishly, and audaciously approached different methods and strategies of advertising. He talks about how, compared to marketer Reeves, who designed commercials to “‘Open by getting attention…’ ‘Establish news value…’ [and] ‘Briefly show what the product is,’” DDB and other Creative Revolution companies believed that advertisements involved emotional and aesthetic seduction, and could not be refined through research or objective, scientific data. Frank talks about how advertisers approached kids/the youth and catered to their individuality, free-spiritedness, rebelliousness, and hedonism-based values/beliefs. He then gives several examples of advertisements, such as those for Barney’s Men’s Store, Suzuki, and Chevy, that promoted those above values/beliefs. He talks about Wells, Rich, Green (WRG) being the “hippest” company in America, and one which made many hilarious commercials, the feminist movement(s) and how companies catered to independent-minded women with products such as “Pristeen” deodorant and “Pond’s” hand lotion, and then finishes up chapter 7 and 8 by talking about 7-Up being the hip, new “uncola” drink.

Our discussions in class on Tuesday and Thursday of last week, for the most part, covered a majority of the topics discussed in the book: the dichotomies of mainstream vs. counterculture (and how the latter ended up becoming the former), Theory X and Y, and scientific vs. artistic advertising, and overall, how firms such as DDB revolutionized the face of advertising/marketing in America. The first two clips we watched were of the 1952 presidential campaign commercial for Dwight D. Eisenhower, which used facts and science to encourage voters, and the 1964 presidential campaign commercial for John F. Kennedy, which used the juxtaposition of a cute little girl picking flowers and a sequence of repetitive mushroom clouds filling the sky, to elicit an emotional rather than rational response. Some of the other important points put forth by our discussion leaders were that firms such DDB packaged and sold the counterculture of the 1960s to the public, that, due to a growth in TV sales between the 1950s and 1960s, consumerism increased, and that counterculture, because of its outspoken, verbal nature, was more pervasive than rational, bureaucratic, Theory X advertising. I thought it was intriguing how, during the 1960s, advertising was about intending to be funny and “honest,” and how many commercials were structured around the theme of “the other guy and you” (which, I think, in many ways, was both directly and indirectly influenced by the “us and them” mentality of the Cold War). Also, it wasn’t about “keeping up with the Joneses.” Rather, it was about “keeping up with your kids,” and the culture of industry and “hip” consumerism essentially became irreconcilable enemies. The second day in class we watched a clip from the show Mad Men which dealt with the issues of males vs. females and Jews vs. WASPs/Gentiles in the advertising industry, in addition to the battle of “management vs. creativity” that pervaded firms. In the clip, a Jewish female client wanted to expand her New York store to reach the wide, non-Jewish population and be more hip/mainstream like Coco Chanel. One of the male workers angrily ignored her on the basis that she was Jewish and a woman, while another reluctantly listened to her because the “client is always right.” We then segued to a conversation on how commercials draw on our irrational, emotional tendencies more so than our logical and reasoning abilities, and talked about how Apple Macs and PCs symbolize the two polar opposite methods of advertisement—the scientific and artistic. We finished up by watching several ads, including the “Mama Mia!” Alka Seltzer, Burlington Mid-Length Socks, and funeral-themed Volkswagen commercial, as well as a clip on the innovative 1960s artist, Peter Max. Finally, somebody put forth the irony that many advertisements simultaneously encourage both thriftiness and spending (the latter subliminally) in their commercials.

One response so far

Feb 08 2010

Latinos Inc. and Market Advertising

In Arlene Davila’s Latinos Inc., the author explores the various dimensions and dynamics of Hispanic marketing in the United States. She starts the book by nothing that the Hispanic market is a multi-billion dollar industry that, since the turn of the 20th century, has developed in cities with dense populations of Latino Americans (New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Miami being a few examples), and that is has been run mostly by Cubans. She continues by mentioning how in the 1960s, the latter group of Latinos bought intermittent time from English stations for Spanish Television, formed the Spanish International Network (later named Univision in 1986) and Telemundo, and how in 1961, Mexican TV entrepreneur Emilio Azcarraga bought entire television stations in San Antonio and Los Angeles, thereafter forming the Spanish International Network (SIN) and the Spanish International Communication Corporations (SICC). Since non-citizens of the U.S. couldn’t own more than 20% of stations, Azcarraga had his business partners and employees convene on his behalf.

The idea most prevalent in the book is how Hispanic marketing not only produces cultural symbols and ideas, as well as reflects social hierarchies, but also how advertisers often target Latino Americans as one giant, monolithic group (or “nation”) of people with nearly exact/identical looks, values, and customs, instead of as individual persons from separate Central and South American countries who are all culturally different. According to Davila, this is a problem because it marginalizes the Hispanic/Latino population, and, as mentioned in chapter 3, creates the idea of the “Walter Cronkite” Latino/Hispanic, one who is portrayed in the media as a generic, unaccented light-skinned person devoid of any specific regional background. In addition, Hispanics are often represented with a particular “image” as fun-loving, brand-loyal immigrants who value tradition, religion, and family above all else. In the 1960s, Cuban advertisers and marketers who relied on instinct, class background, and experience, rather than research, to create an image, perpetuated these stereotypes, representing Hispanics on TV and in advertisements as lively, colorful, dancing groups of people, and showed this as the “right” way to be Hispanic. Davila mentions Lionel Sosa, the founder of the company Bromley, Aguilar, and Associates, as having tried to assert that unlike how they were represented, not all Latinos were people who immigrated to the U.S. and didn’t know a word of English. Many, like him, were not only born in the U.S., but were also bilingual. In addition, he tried to debunk the stereotype that they were all conservative, family-oriented people who ate a lot, didn’t venture outside of their neighborhood, and were overzealous about their own nationality. When Davila discusses stereotypes, she talks about how they’re not intrinsically good or bad, and are in fact “necessary components of human interaction and communication,” but how they are also detrimental to society because they “reduce complexities to a few limited social conventions…[and] engender social hierarchies.” Companies and marketers such as Proctor and Gamble, AT&T, Johnson & Johnson, Sears, and McDonalds cater to the supposedly poor, but large Latino families, telephone companies and Kodak exploit the stereotype that all Latinos have a nostalgic desire to return to their homeland, and in their advertisements often show images of lush country sides, colonial villages, and the amenities of soccer, exotic foods, domino sets, and Spanish guitars/mariachi bands in order to promote their long distance telecommunication, and, as in the case of a 1999 Hispanic soap opera La Usurpadora, women are often represented as either traditional housewives whose sacrifice and devotion can fix all family problems, or as “overly sexualized, loud, and hot tempered [‘whores’].” Also, in her book, Davila talks about how in the past few decades, Anglos have been depicted in Hispanic marketing as being dumb or ignorant in comparison to Latinos, and overall, how not only have American symbols such as cowboys, jeans, and the Statue of Liberty been “Latinized,” but also how marketers have tried to promote a conceptualized image of the “wholesome, white middle class family” and its American values to the Latino community.

Although our discussions were brief this past week, I think the most important point of interest the class picked up on was that like The Overspent American, Latinos Inc. is basically about how marketers try to advertise to “everyone,” and how in the case of the Latino population, this has marginalized the latter group of people. Also, I think it was important how we mentioned the different aspects and dynamics of individual Latino countries (an example being that in Guatemala, citizens speak Mayan rather than Spanish, and must be taught Spanish before learning English in the U.S.), and how when immigrants come to the U.S., they do not fully “assimilate,” but rather take part in a hybridization of cultures. Also, before our discussion, I didn’t know about Tejanas in Texas and the experience of racism in the past similar to that of African Americans in the south, I didn’t know that Rhode Island has a heavy Portuguese population, and I didn’t know how there was such a place as “Asland” between the U.S. and Mexican border where 1960s Chicano movements took place.

By Peter H. Smeallie IV

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